S-Boote German E-Boats in action 1939-45
The Battleship Bismarck. I use sendspace. I wish you could read custom documents in game. Originally Posted by ceki. Ocean Warrior. Originally Posted by aergistal. My advice is do NOT upload them as it would be considered copyright infrigement. Oh my God, not again!! Find More Posts by Jimbuna. Thread Tools. They were small craft, mainly of wood construction up to feet in length. They served with distinction throughout the Second World War. Fast, fearless and tenacious they would tackle the enemy wherever they found him on sea, air and shore, size was no deterrent — the larger they came etc!
Of 81 enemy midget submarines destroyed, 32 were claimed by Coastal Forces. Having fired torpedoes, their percentage of hits and probable hits bettered that of the submarine service. In addition 32 enemy aircraft were shot down and twice as many mine laying operations were carried out than were credited to other mine laying forces. By Coastal Forces numbering some officers and 22, ratings, were operating from Norway to the Aegean.
Both in offence and defence, the fighting zeal and the professional skill of officers and men have maintained the great tradition built up by many generations of British seamen. Over decorations, including two V.
Do you want to become a Coastal Forces Heritage Supporter? A number of naval forces have operated in different periods.
Presently the largest operation the German Navy is participating in is UNIFIL off the coast of Lebanon ; the German contribution to this operation is two frigates, four fast attack craft, two auxiliary vessels. The naval component of UNIFIL has been under German command; the navy is operating a number of development and testing installations as part of an inter-service and international network. In total, there are about 65 commissioned ships in the German Navy, including; the displacement of the navy is , tonnes.
In addition, the German Navy and the Royal Danish Navy are in cooperation in the "Ark Project"; this agreement made the Ark Project responsible for the strategic sealift of German armed forces where the full-time charter of three roll-on-roll-off cargo and troop ships are ready for deployments.
In addition, these ships are kept available for the use of the other European NATO countries; the three vessels have a combined displacement of 60, tonnes. Including these ships, the total ships' displacement available to the Deutsche Marine is , tonnes. A total of five Joint Support Ships , two JSS and three JSS, were planned during the — period but the programme appears now to have been abandoned, not having been mentioned in two recent defence reviews. The larger ships would have been tasked for strategic troop transport and amphibious operations, were to displace 27, to 30, tons for soldiers.
Fast attack craft A fast attack craft is a small, fast and offensive warship armed with anti-ship missiles, gun or torpedoes. FACs are operated in close proximity to land as they lack both the seakeeping and all-round defensive capabilities to survive in blue water; the size of the vessel limits the fuel and water supplies. In size they are between 50— tonnes and can reach speeds of 25—50 knots.
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A fast attack craft's main advantage over other warship types is its affordability. Many FACs can be deployed at a low cost, allowing a navy, at a disadvantage to defend itself against a larger adversary.
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- Meaning of "E-boat" in the English dictionary.
A small boat, when equipped with the same weapons as its larger counterpart, can pose a serious threat to the largest of capital ships, their major disadvantages are poor seagoing qualities, cramped quarters and poor ability to defend themselves against aerial threat. The idea was first put into action in the s with the steam-powered torpedo boat, produced in large numbers by both the Royal Navy and the French Navy.
These new vessels proved susceptible to rough seas and to have limited utility in scouting due to their short endurance and low bridges; the potential threat was extinguished with the introduction of the Torpedo Boat Destroyer in , a larger vessel which evolved into the modern destroyer. It could mount guns capable of destroying the torpedo boat before it was within range to use its own weapons; the idea was revived shortly before World War I with the craft using new gasoline engines.
All types saw extensive use during World War II but were limited in effectiveness due to the increasing threat of aircraft. With the development of the anti-ship missile FACs were reborn in the Soviet Union as "missile boats" or "missile cutters"; the first few missile boats were torpedo boats, with the torpedo tubes replaced by missile launchers. Again, small fast craft could destroy a major warship; the idea was first tested by the Soviet Union which, in August , produced the Komar class which mounted two P Termit missiles on a metre and a top speed of around 40 knots.
Endurance was limited to 1, nautical miles at 12 knots and the vessels had supplies for only five days at sea. The first combat use of missile boats was by the Egyptian Soviet-built Komar-class craft fire of four Styx missiles on the Israeli destroyer Eilat on 20 October , shortly after the Six-Day War , causing the latter's sinking with 47 dead.
Built on a ormetre hull with four MM Exocet missiles, a 76 mm gun forward and 40 mm twin guns aft, these vessels have a top speed of 36 knots. Size has increased, some designs reaching up to corvette size, tonnes including a helicopter, giving them extended modes of operation. While the Israeli Sa'ar 4-class missile boats, for example, had a 58 metre hull and ton displacement, the Sa'ar 5 is 85 metres in length and displaces 1, tons, is rated as a corvette.
North Korea alone operates more than , while Iran has been seen developing "swarm boats" to be used as harassing vessels in the contested littoral waters of the Persian Gulf. It is the busiest shipping area in the world, it is about km long and varies in width from km at its widest to It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe , covering an area of some 75, km2; until the 18th century, the English Channel had no fixed name either in French. It was never defined as a political border, the names were more or less descriptive, it was not considered as the property of a nation.
Before the development of the modern nations, British scholars often referred to it as " Gaulish " and French scholars as "British" or "English"; the name "English Channel" has been used since the early 18th century originating from the designation Engelse Kanaal in Dutch sea maps from the 16th century onwards. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal.http://cars.cleantechnica.com/gods-greatest-challenge-man-and-his-ungodly-ways.php
It has been known as the "British Channel" or the "British Sea". It was called Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy ; the same name is used on an Italian map of about , which gives the alternative name of canalites Anglie—possibly the first recorded use of the "Channel" designation. The French name la Manche has been in use since at least the 17th century; the name is said to refer to the Channel's sleeve shape. Folk etymology has derived it from a Celtic word meaning channel, the source of the name for the Minch in Scotland , but this name was never mentioned before the 17th century, French and British sources of that time are clear about its etymology; the name in Breton means "Breton Sea", its Cornish name means "British Sea".
The Strait of Dover, at the Channel's eastern end, is its narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo , near its midpoint, it is shallow, with an average depth of about m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the former land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries , it reaches a maximum depth of m in the submerged valley of Hurd's Deep , 48 km west-northwest of Guernsey.
The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several major islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast, the Channel Islands , British Crown dependencies off the coast of France. The coastline on the French shore, is indented.
The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a small parallel strait known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland; the Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel acts as a funnel that amplifies the tidal range from less than a metre as observed at sea to more than 6 metres as observed in the Channel Islands, the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula and the north coast of Brittany ; the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.
In the UK Shipping Forecast the Channel is divided into the following areas, from the east: Dover Wight Portland Plymouth The Channel is of geologically recent origin, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. Before the Devensian glaciation and Ireland were part of continental Europe , linked by an unbroken Weald-Artois Anticline , a ridge that acted as a natural dam holding back a large freshwater pro-glacial lake in the Doggerland region, now submerged under the North Sea.
During this period the North Sea and all of the British Isles were covered by ice.
The World at War: Wolf Pack: U-Boats in the Atlantic - 1939-1944 (10 of 26)
The lake was fed by meltwater from the Baltic and from the Caledonian and Scandinavian ice sheets that joined to the north, blocking its exit; the sea level was about m lower. Between , and , years ago, at least two catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods breached the Weald—Artois anticline ; the first flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, which excav. Marine propulsion Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water.
While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less in pump-jets, an impeller.
S-Boote: German E Boats in Action, by Jean Philippe Dallies-Labourdette
Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys, some equipped with sail played an important early role; the first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine, introduced in the early 19th century. During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, gas turbine engines on faster ships. Marine nuclear reactors, which appeared in the s, produce steam to propel warships and icebreakers.
Electric motors using electric battery storage have been used for propulsion on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion. Development in liquefied natural gas fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages.